Neurohybrid systems usually involve structures from the nanoscale – i.e. molecular – to the macroscale – i.e. entire organs or body parts – level.
Important implementation examples within CSNII are brain-machine interfaces, where neurons and their molecular machineries are connected to microscopic sensors and actuators by means of electrical or chemical communication, either in vitro or in the living organism. Such neurohybrid systems have the potential for high-impact application to humans, serving as new tools for neuroscience research and as a basis for development of new therapies for neurological disorders and advanced neuroprostheses.